Diagnostic Methods and Treatment Options for STDs

Sexually transmitted diseases

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) or sexually transmitted infections (STIs) or venereal diseases (VD) occur because of transfer of infectious organism in a sexual contact. STDs occur because of harmful bacteria, parasites, yeast, and viruses. Sometimes, STDs occur on account of spreading with the organisms at a mother to infant during childbirth or during breast-feeding through unsterilized drug needles, and during blood transfusions.

Some specific varieties of STDs are:

Bacteria-related STDs

Chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis)
Gonorrhea (Neisseria gonorrhea)
Syphilis (Treponema pallidum)
Chancroid (Haemophilus ducreyi)

Viruses-related STDs

Crabs, generally known as pubic lice
Hepatitis B and D, and infrequently, A*, C*, E* (hepatitis viruses, types A-E)
Genital herpes (herpes virus)
Genital warts (human papillomavirus virus [HPV])
HIV/AIDS (human immunodeficiency virus [HIV virus])
Molluscum contagiosum* (poxvirus)

Protozoan-related STDs

Trichomoniasis (Trichomonas vaginalis)

Parasites-related STDs

Pubic lice or crabs (Pediculosis pubis)

Fungi-related STDs

Yeast infections (Candida albicans)

Genital areas are likely to be moist and warm and are also ideal environments for that growth of yeasts, viruses, and bacteria etc.

Symptoms of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

Painful ulcers within the genitals
Rashes, fever, headache and cough, achy joints
Recurring outbreaks of blister-like sores around the genitals
Fatigue, night sweats, chills
Sore throats, swollen lymph nodes
Weight loss
Strong vaginal odor
Vaginal itching or irritation and painful urination
Serious complications of AIDS including unusual infections or cancers, weight reduction, intellectual deterioration (dementia), and death

During transmission, the possibilities of disease transfer depend around the donor carrying chlamydia and within the carrier. For example, in the event of herpes, HSV 2 transmission probability is:

Herpes male to non herpes female = 10%
Herpes female to non herpes male = 4%.

Some STDs, for instance genital herpes and HIV, that can cause AIDS can’t be cured but tend to only be controlled with medication.

For the treating of STDs,

antibiotics tend to be commonly preferred regarding bacterial infection
for viruses, antiviral medications or anti-retroviral treatment therapy is given

Diagnosis methods

Blood tests: Blood tests assist with confirm the carried out HIV and AIDS or sometimes the later stage of syphilis.
Urine samples: Sometimes, STDs is usually confirmed which has a urine sample.
Fluid samples: In case of active genital sores, fluid and samples through the sores are collected being tested to identify the type of infection. In some cases, laboratory tests of samples at a genital sore or discharge are used in order to identify some STIs (sexually transmitted infections).
Pregnant women are screened to avoid the issue transfer for the baby

Treatment and prevention for STDs

Antibiotics: Antibiotics can cure many sexually transmitted bacterial and parasitic infections, including gonorrhea, syphilis, chlamydia and trichomoniasis. But, often there is a possibility that chlamydia might reoccur.
Antiviral drugs: Antiviral drugs slow up the risk of infection, however, there is still plausible that the issue can occur again. Antiviral drugs will keep HIV infection in order for many years, nevertheless the virus persists and may still be transmitted, although risk is leaner.
As early care is given, greater effective it can be.
Healthcare professionals reference safer sex to lessen the risk of STDs, for instance the utilization of condoms within a sexual activity. But safer sex methods cannot always provide complete protection from an STI.
Avoid contact during transfer of and contact with bodily fluids, for example blood transfusions as well as other blood products, sharing injection needles, sharing tattoo needles, etc.
Abstinence is avoiding or stopping from any sexual act by having an affected person which is the most effective way to stop an STI.
Monogamy to 1 uninfected partner: A long-term, monogamous relationship with a single person lowers the probability of contracting an STI.

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